动物疫病防控体系研究 

导读:中文摘要………………………………………………………………..…1Abstract,动物疫病防控体系与防控对策研究,但动物疫病频繁发生、畜产品卫生质量较低已成为当前制约全国畜牧业发展的关键所在,在研究、借鉴发达国家动物卫生管理经验的基础上,深入研究分析目前国内动物疫病防控和畜产品安全监管等动物卫生工作中存在的问题,建立科学的动物疫病防控长效机制,本研究以大量考察报告、调查资料、文献资料和专家、基

动物疫病防控体系研究 

目录

中 文 摘 要………………………………………………………………..…1 Abstract……………………………………………………………………….3 第一章 引言……….……………………………………………………….…6 1.目的与意义…………………………………………………………………6 2.国内外研究现状…………………………………………………………11 3.研究内容和方法…………………………………………………………13 第二章 动物疫病防控体系与运行机制……………………………15 1.动物疫病防控体系………………………………………………………...15 2.动物疫病防控机制………………………………………………………...16 第三章 国际动物疫病防控通行规则和发达国家的做法…………………18 1.兽医工作的基本职能是保护动物卫生和提高动物源性食品安全 ……18 2.建立科学高效的兽医管理体制是做好兽医工作的首要条件 ………….19 3.动物疫病防控工作的基本原则和要求………………………….………21 4.WTO的SPS协议在动物卫生方面的主要要求………………………….23 5.发达国家动物疫病防控工作的主要做法………………………….…...25 第四章我国动物疫病防控工作的发展和成就…………….……………38 1.我国动物疫病防控工作历史悠久………………………………………..38 2.建国后,我国动物疫病防控工作取得了巨大成就 …………………40 3.中国已经成为世界畜牧业大国………………………………………43 第五章我国动物疫病防控工作中存在的问题分析………………………..45 1.尚未确定国家适当的动物卫生保护水平………………………………45 2.兽医管理体制还不完善…………………………………………………46 3.兽医法规体系不完善……………………………………………………49 4.兽医实验室和动物疫病诊断技术标准体系不完善 ………………….50 5.动物疫病监控和认证体系不完善………………………………………51 6.突发动物疫病应急反应体系不完善……………………………………53 7.风险评估和进出境检疫机制不完善……………………………………54 8.动物疫情制度不完全透明………………………………………………55 9.我国动物疫病疫情复杂…………………………………………………56 10.千家万户的饲养方式和鲜活动物的消费习惯增加了防控难度………58 第六章基本结论和我国动物疫病防控对策建议…………………………..59 1.基本结论…………………………………………………………………59 2.构建有效动物疫病防控体系与防控对策的建议………………………61 结论…………………………………………………………………………..71 参考文献 ………………………………………………………………..72 附录…………………………………………………………………………..75

山东农业大学硕士专业学位论文

动物疫病防控体系与防控对策研究

中 文 摘 要

改革开放以来,作为畜产品生产大国的中国,畜牧业得到快速发展,畜产品供不应求的问题已经得到解决,但动物疫病频繁发生、畜产品卫生质量较低已成为当前制约全国畜牧业发展的关键所在,畜牧业正处在从量到质转换的重要时期。因此,在研究、借鉴发达国家动物卫生管理经验的基础上,深入研究分析目前国内动物疫病防控和畜产品安全监管等动物卫生工作中存在的问题,建立科学的动物疫病防控长效机制,具有非常重要的现实意义。

本研究以大量考察报告、调查资料、文献资料和专家、基层工作者意见为材料,采用实证研究与规范研究相结合、定性分析与定量分析相结合、宏观分析与微观分析相结合、纵向比较与横向比较相结合、资料搜集与专家、基层工作者座谈相结合等多种研究方法,对动物疫病防控体系与运行机制进行了较为系统地研究,得出如下结果:

1.对国际通行规则的研究表明:世界动物卫生组织(OIE)和世界贸易组织(WTO)等在协调各国动物疫病防控政策、制定疫病防控标准,维护公平贸易等方面制定了一系列的标准和规定。如OIE的动物卫生要求、WTO-SPS协议、非歧视待遇和管理透明原则等。这些国际通行规则,世界上每个国家都应该遵守。

2.对部分发达国家动物疫病防控体系与运行机制的研究表明:以欧美等部分国家为代表的畜牧业发达国家,在动物疫病防控工作中已经有了很多好的经验。主要包括:设置高效的兽医管理体制,实行工作统一归口管理;完善以官方兽医为核心的国家兽医队伍,建立垂直管理的兽医官制度;

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动物疫病防控体系与运行机制研究

实行严进宽出的检疫制度,加强动物及动物产品进口控制;建立完善的官方兽医实验室和诊断标准体系,协助国家兽医行政机构诊断并扑灭动物传染病;制定科学的紧急反应方案,建立应急反应机制和合理可行的补偿制度;稳步科学地提出国家动物疫病消灭计划,严格实施监控认证程序;建立完善的法制、技术标准体系和财政保障体系等。这些经验和做法值得我们借鉴。

3.对我国动物疫病防控工作的研究表明:我国动物疫病防控工作历史悠久,而且取得了很大成就,但工作中依然存在不少问题。如未明确确定国家适当的动物卫生保护水平,兽医管理体制、法规体系、实验室和动物疫病诊断技术标准体系、动物疫病监控和认证体系、紧急应急反应体系以及风险评估及进出境检验检疫机制等仍不完善,加之我国动物疫病种类繁多以及饲养方式落后等国情,动物疫病防控工作仍面临巨大压力。应当针对工作中存在的问题,依照动物疫病防控的内在规律要求,进一步加强对疫病防控体系与运行机制的研究,提出科学的防控对策,全面提升我国动物防疫水平。

本研究证明,构建一个完善的国家动物疫病防控体系,至少应当包括六个方面的有效支持系统。即,科学高效的兽医管理体制、健全的法律法规体系、完善的兽医实验室技术支持体系、科学的动物疫病监控和认证体系、快速的动物疫病紧急反应体系和严格统一的进出口检疫和风险分析体系。而且,动物疫病防控体系的各个子系统之间存在着互相支持、互相依赖并互相制约的关系,共同保障着动物卫生和公共卫生安全,只有保证动物疫病防控体系的各个子系统都能高效运行,才能推动着一个国家动物防疫工作水平不断向高层次发展,才能达到控制与消灭动物疫病的目的。 关键词:动物疫病;体系与机制;研究

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山东农业大学硕士专业学位论文

Abstract

Since reform and opening up, China as a big country of livestock production, which husbandry had developed rapidly, and the shortage problem of livestock products had already been solved. But frequent occurrence of animal diseases, the lower quality of livestock products had become the current main key to the development of husbandry. And husbandry is in an important period of the transformation from quantity to quality. Therefore, on the basis of studying and referencing the experience of animal health management in the developed countries, analyzing the existed problems of animal health home of current domestic animal diseases prevention and control and monitoring the safety of livestock products, etc. It was quite an important practical significance that establishing a scientific long-term mechanism for prevention and control of animal diseases.

In this study a large number of inspection reports, survey data, literature, the views of experts and grass-roots workers as materials, the system of animal diseases prevention and control and operating mechanism were studied systematically, the results were as follow:

1. The study of the current international rules showed : a series of standards and regulations which were coordinated the policies about the international prevention and control for animal diseases, were formulated the standards of diseases prevention and control, were served the fair trade, etc, for example the requirement for animal health of OIE, the WTO-SPS agreement, the non-discriminatory treatment and the transparent principle of management, etc. And these international conventions should be abided by in the world.

2. The study of prevention and control system for animal diseases and operating

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动物疫病防控体系与运行机制研究

mechanism on the part of developed countries showed: there was a lot of good experience in the countries having developed husbandry as represented by Europe, the United States and other countries in the prevention and control of animal diseases. Including: setting up the efficient system of veterinary management, and executing a unified centralized management; perfecting the official team at the core of the national veterinary, and establishing the system of vertical veterinary officer; performing the quarantine of strict entry and wide export, and strengthening the control of animal and animal products imported; founding the perfect system of official veterinary laboratories and diagnostic standard, and assistting national veterinary administration diagnosing and fighting against animal diseases; setting up the scientific programme for emergency responsing, and establishing the system of emergency responsing mechanisms and reasonable compensation; proposing the fighting plan of animal diseases steadily and scientificly, and strictly monitoring the implementation of the accreditation process, establishing a sound legal, technical standards and financial security system. These experiences and practices were worthy of our emulation.

3. The study of Chinese animal epidemic prevention and control showed: Chinese animal epidemic prevention and control had a long history, and had made great achievements, but many problems still existed. Such as no clearly defined national appropriate level of protection of animal health, the system of veterinary management, the system of legal, the system of the standard for the laboratories and infections diagnostic technology, the system of monitoring and certificating infections, the system of emergency responsing, and the mechanism of risking assessment and entry-exit inspection, etc were still not perfect. In addition to the conditions of various of infections and the backward rearing methods, the epidemic prevention and control was still facing great pressure. Work should be aimed at the problems existed in the epidemic prevention

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