The Historical Background ? The realist movement was greatly influenced by the development of science in the 19th


? The age of realism was the age of railway, wireless telegraphy and countless other

mechanical inventions that revolutionized the nature of society within a very shot span of time.

The chief difference between Romanticism and Realism: ? Romanticism emphasized individual values and aspiration above those of society.

? The Realist movement centered in the novel and lay emphasis on fidelity to actual


Realism in France Stendhal (1783-1842) ? pen name of Marie Henri Beyle ? French writer

? one of the foremost and earliest practitioners of the realistic form ? the first to feature psychological analysis of the character His works:

? Armance

? Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black)

? La Chartreuse de Parme (The Charterhouse of Parma)

Honoré de Balzac(1799-1850) ? French writer and a founder of the realist school of fiction

? Called“the French Dickens”, as Dickens has been called “the English Balzac”. ? The Human Comedy

? Balzac is particular celebrated for his monumental La Comedie Humaine (The Huaman Comedy) inspired by that of Dante’s Divine Comedy ? It is the title given by Balzac to the whole collection of his 90 novels. ? His project was to present in a series of books, a comprehensive picture of contemporary French society. ? In these 90 novels and short stories, the Comedie Humaine Realistically studies every social class and touches on most fields of knowledge. ? Among the best-known individual novels of the series are Engenie Grandet (1833), Le Pere Goriot (1834) and La Cousine Bette (1864)

Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) ? One of the great literary artist of the 19th century.

? An inspiration to many realistic writers, Flaubert is often called the first French Realist. ? Model not only to French Authors but to Americans and Russians as well, notably Henry

James and Turgenev.

? His most famous novel: Madame Bovary émile Zola (1840-1902) ? French writer, novelist, and critic


? The founder of the naturalist school ? His motto: A slice of life.

? He defined the theory of naturalism and illustrated it in his great work entitled Les

Rougen-Macquarts, intending to demonstrate the law of human conduct by a scientific study “a slice of life”

Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893) ? French writer

? Learned the art of story-telling from Flaubert. ? Most of his productions were short stories.

? Chose the subjects for his stories and novels chiefly from Norman peasant life. ? The Necklace, Ball-of-Fat (1880)《羊脂球》, The Piece of String and The Umbrella

Realism in Russia

? The beginning of modern Russian literature are to be traced to the Napoleonic wars.

? The political and philosophical aspirations of the Russian people expressed themselves in

the form of literature, and literature became the voice of the people.

Nikolai Gogol (1809-1852) ? Russian writer, humorist

? The first master of fiction in Russia to leave romantic conventions and go to life for his


? considered the founder of realism in Russian literature. Masterpiece: Dead Soul

? Chichikov乞乞可夫, the chief character, moves about the country buying serfs who have died since the last census but who must be carried on the tax roll until the next census. ? This novel is a picture of the worst aspects of Russian life, the inhumanity of the owners of the serfs, the vanity and immorality of the upper classes.

? The comment which Pushkin 普希金 make when he read the manuscript of Dead Soul is famous: God! What a sad country is Russia! Gogol invents nothing: it is the truth, the terrible truth.

IvaN Sergeyevich Turgenev (1818-1883) ? The first Russian author to gain recognition in the West.

? He was the man who opened the doors for younger contemporaries, Tolstoy and


His first important work: A Hunter’s Sketches ? Describes the miserable life of the peasants.

? Its effects on the abolition of serfdom 废除农奴制度 in Russia had often been

compared to that of Harriet Beech Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the abolition of slavery in the United States. Fathers and Sons

? His best known work

? regarded as one of the defining works of the 19th-century fiction

Fyodor Dostoyevsky ? Russian writer whose works combine religious mysticism with profound psychological



His Works:

? Crime and Punishment: the most popular of his novels, study of criminal psychology ? The Brothers Karamazov: as his masterpiece which was never completed. Count Leo Tolstoy ( 1828-1910) ? Russian writer and philosopher

? With Dostyevsky, Tolstoy made the Russian realistic novel a literary genre that ranks in

importance with classical Greek Tragedy and Elizabethan Drama.

? His great works: War and Peace, Anna Karenina, the two books stand at the peak of

realistic fiction

Anto Pavlovich Chekhov (1860-1904) ? Russian Dramatist, novelist

? He studies medicine and practised it for a time. He always felt a sincere sympathy for the

poor and the oppressed, a feeling which was deepened by his contacts as a physician ? Chekhov differs sharply from the two giants of Russian literature, Tolstoy and


? His work is of smaller scope. He mainly wrote short stories and plays.

? His works:The Man in the Shell《套中人》and A Chameleon《变色龙》.

? Plays: The Seagull, Uncle Vanya, The three Sisters, and The Cherry Orchard. They have

become classics of world theater

Realism in England

? The period of realism in English literature corresponds roughly to the latter half of the

reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1900).

? This is the period when England was at the peak of its power, rapidly growing into a

strong, industrialized nation.

? In spite of its stable government and greatly increased population, the country suffered

sever economic depression.

? Both the prosperity and the social troubles such as unemployment and appalling

conditions of the working people left their marks on the literature of the period.

Charles Dickens (1812-1870) ? Whatever he wrote he has some basis on his own experience.

? As a novelist of genius, he has created a whole world of beings animated with movement

of life, with unforgettable scenes and full of good humour, tender emotions and loving-kindness. ? Famous works: ? A Tale of Two Cities ? Oliver Twist

? A Christmas Carol ? Hard Times ? Bleak House

? Pickwick Papers《匹克威克外传》written at the age of 25, brought him fame and prosperity.

? David Copperfield《大卫·科波菲尔》, his best book, a kind of autobiographical romance.


Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) ? One of the greatest poets and novelists in English literature

? The background of his novels was always the same: the moors, the hills, the narrow

provincial life.

? Everywhere in Thomas Hardy’s novels human beings appear to be crushed by a superior

force, a pitiless fate and the indifference of his fellow creatures.

? His Tragic Novels: The most important of these classically constructed tragic novels are:

Far from the Madding Crowd, The Return of the Native, The mayor of Casterbrige, Tess of the d’Urberyvilles, and Jude the Obscure. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) ? English Dramatist

? Won the Nobel Prize in 1925.

? A member of the Fabian Society whose aim was to make a transition from capitalism to

socialism without violence. ? His works:

? St. Joan

? Man and Superman ? The Doctor’s Dilemma ? The Apple Cart ? Major Barbara ? Pygmalion


? George Eliot (艾略特 1819-1880): The Mill on the Floss《弗洛斯河上的磨坊》,


? William Makepeace Thackeray (萨克雷1811-1863): Vanity Fair《名利场》 ? Charlot Brontes (1816-1855) : Jane Eyre《简爱》

Realism in Art and Music Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) ? French painter

? Known for his realistic depiction of everyday scenes.

? He said, “I can’t pain an angel because I have never seen on.”

? His works include Burial at Ornans (1850), Bonjour M. Courbet (1854), and The Artist's

Studio (1855).

Impressionism in Art

? Impressionism was a form of artistic expression in the 19th century. Impressionism in

painting, which began in the mid-19th century Paris, was a school or movement only in a very general sense.

? The chief characteristics of the impressionist style were first seen in Monet’s landscapes

in which the forms are broken by loose brushstrokes and the colors of objects are reflected into other objects throughout the painting.

? The major representatives of Impressionism of 19th century were Manet, Monet, Pissarro,

Renoir and Degas.



? Regarded as the leader of the impressionist movement.

? To him, reality was not a world of solid objects but of sensation of light and color in

changing and fleeting patterns.

? His representative works: The Lucheon on the Grass and Foliers Bergers Monet ? The French painter

? Developed the technique of broken-color painting.

? Pained 16 views of Waterloo Bridge and 26 views of Rousen Cathedral to record the

passing of time.

? His famous painting was Impression: Sunrise Vincent van Gogh

? Dutch impressionist painter.

? His colours are very much distorted and his brushwork is almost savage. ? Sunflower Sculpture

? Auguste Rodin: the man who led sculpture into the realm of Art for Art’s Sake. ? The first sculptor of genius since Bernini in Renaissance Italy. ? His very famous work: The Thinker Music

? Antonin Dvorak(德沃夏克): Czech nationalistic musician ? Debussy(德彪西): French composer, described as the founder of modern musical

impressionism. His major works are Prelude to “The Afternoon of A Faun”, The Sea, Images etc.


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